FIRST TIME IN PUNE LAUNCHING SIALOENDOSCOPY(SALIVARY GLAND ENDOSCOPY) FOR BOTH DIAGNOSTIC & THERAPEUTIC. FIRST TIME IN PUNE LAUNCHING SIALOENDOSCOPY(SALIVARY GLAND ENDOSCOPY) FOR BOTH DIAGNOSTIC & THERAPEUTIC. FIRST TIME IN PUNE LAUNCHING SIALOENDOSCOPY(SALIVARY GLAND ENDOSCOPY) FOR BOTH DIAGNOSTIC & THERAPEUTIC.

Services

ENT

  • Otology Clinic: all types of ear surgeries
  • Audiology Set Up & Hearing Rehabilitation Services
  • Head & Neck Surgery
  • Sleep & Snoring Clinic
  • Sialoendoscopy
  • Nasal Endoscopy & Skull Base Surgery
  • Voice Clinic & Laryngeal Surgeries
  • Allergy Diagnosis & Treatment
  • Rhinoplasty & Cosmetic Surgery
  • Vertigo treatment & rehabilitation

CANCER

  • Cancer Clinic
  • Detection, Diagnosis & holistic treatment & of cancer
  • Day care chemotherapy
  • Surgical, Medical & Radiation oncology
  • Prevention of Cancer

Otology Clinic

Otology is a subspecialty of otolaryngology which focuses on the diseases of the ear and connecting structures. Types of Ear Surgery

1.Microsurgery on the Ear: The structures inside the ear are very small, so the development of microsurgery has made it easier to perform more extensive surgery within this confined space. Microsurgery is used for ear drum repair, to locate and remove small ear tumors, and to repair the bones within the ear if they have become damaged, or have degenerated. Surgery is performed through the ear drum, and then involves an ear drum reconstruction.

2.Laser Surgery and the Ear: Laser surgery is an integral technique used in the operation to replace damaged inner ear bones. The instruments are introduced into the inner ear through an incision in the ear drum, and then a laser is used to vaporize what is left of the damaged hammer, anvil or stirrup bone. This technique is far better than using tools to physically break up the bone remnants, as the very act of chipping in the inner ear can damage the delicate sensory cells involved in hearing.

3.Fitting a Cochlear Implant: Surgery to fit a cochlear implant is a tricky procedure and the operation can take about 4 hours. A general anesthetic is required and it is normal to have to stay in hospital for at least two days. Although the microphone part of the cochlear implant is worn on the outside of the skull, usually just above the ear, the internal components have to be implanted under the skin and inside the inner ear itself. The processor is implanted under the skin and is attached to the microphone and then the processor is linked to tiny micro electrode arrays that are implanted directly inside the cochlea, and attached to the auditory nerve. After about 6 weeks of healing, the processor is activated, and then a long and intense period of training begins, to enable the person with the implant to the maximum benefit from it.

4.Removal of Ear Tumors: Ear tumors are rare but even very small tumors such as acoustic neuroma that form inside the inner ear, particularly on the auditory nerve, can have a severe impact on hearing and the sense of balance. Surgery to remove such tumors can be successful, but microsurgery and great skill is required to avoid damaging the nerve and sensory cells in the process. Surgeons are trying to improve the techniques all the time and a recent research study showed a greater chance of success if the incision was made behind the ear, to gain access to the tumor, rather from coming in from the top of the ear

Audiology Set Up & Hearing Rehabilitation Services

Audiologists are trained to diagnose, manage and treat hearing or balance problems for individuals of all age groups. If you or a family member suspect that you have a hearing problem or a balance problem, contact to our center. After carefully reviewing your health history and evaluating your hearing, an audiologist will determine whether your condition might be medically treatable and will refer you to an appropriate professional. If your condition is not medically treatable, he or she will review any recommendations for audio logic care or treatment which may include hearing aids, aural rehabilitation or balance therapy.

Hearing Screening: A hearing screening is a quick test to see how well you hear different sounds. You either pass or fail the screening. If you pass, you do not need to do anything else. If you fail, you may need more testing to see if you have a hearing loss. You can have a hearing screening at any age. Most babies have a hearing screening before they leave the hospital. Children get screenings at school or at the doctor’s office. Adults can go to doctors or Company Health checkup camps for screening.

Hearing Aids: Medicine or surgery can fix some types of hearing problems. For example, your child may have problems hearing when she has a hearing loss. The hearing loss will go away when the infection clears. For other types of hearing loss, a hearing aid may help. An audiologist can find the best type of hearing aid for you. You may need only one hearing aid. Or, you may have hearing loss in both ears. In this case, two hearing aids may be better. Wearing two hearing aids

• helps you figure out where sounds come from,

• makes it easier to hear in noisy places, and

• makes your hearing better overall.

The audiologist will make sure you get the right hearing aid for you. She will teach you how to use it and take care of it. She can answer questions about your hearing loss and hearing aids.

Head & Neck Surgery

This center of the body includes the important nerves that control sight, smell, hearing, and the face. In the head and neck area, otolaryngologists are trained to treat infectious diseases, both benign and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They perform both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Head and neck surgery is a multi-disciplinary specialty, made up of predominantly Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ENT) trained specialists, other surgeons trained in head and neck surgery include general surgeons, plastic surgeons and maxilla-facial surgeons.

Head and neck surgeons operate predominantly in the head and neck, but have to be able to operate on all parts of the body in order to gain tissue for reconstruction. This surgery is also known as microsurgery and involves harvesting bone, muscle and skin from distant parts of the body in order to reconstruct a defect in the head and neck.

Sleep & Snoring Clinic

Sleep and Snoring Clinic is an integrated service which dedicated to the treatment of sleep disorder, insomnia, including relaxation therapy and more. Sleep disorders is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. A test commonly ordered for sleep disorders is Polysomnography or Sleep study.

Sleep study allows doctors to measure how much and how well you sleep, and show whether you have sleep problems and how severe they are. Sleep studies are important because untreated sleep

disorders can increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke and other medical conditions. Sleep disorders also link to an increased risk of injury due to falls and car accidents.
The various of sleep study provided in Our Sleep and Snoring Clinic are:
• Overnight polisomnography
• Daytime Nap Test or Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)
• Drug-induced Sleep Endoscopy(DISE)
Our Sleep and Snoring Clinic also provide the comprehensive treatment of insomnia. Insomnia is a condition of having problem falling or staying asleep. This condition can range from mild to severe, depending on how often it occurs and for how long. Our Sleep and snoring Clinic provides the treatment for chronic insomnia such as:
• Sleep Hygiene
• Relaxation Therapy
• Sleep Restriction Therapy
• Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Sialoendoscopy (Salivary gland endoscopy & Treatment for strictures , stones etc)

Sialoendoscopy (commonly referred to as Sialendoscopy) is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of obstructive salivary gland disorders and other conditions of the salivary glands.

Ours is the first center in Pune to offer services of sialoendoscopy for both Diagnostic as well as Therapeutic purposes.

During sialoendoscopy a small endoscope is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth. Sialoendoscopy is an efficient yet simple mode of treatment for major salivary gland obstructions, strictures and sialoliths (salivary stones). Depending on the obstruction, sialoendoscopy can be conducted under local anesthesia in an outpatient office or in the operating room under general anesthesia’s.

Nasal Endoscopy & Skull Base Surgery

What is nasal endoscopy?
Nasal endoscopy is a procedure to look at the nasal and sinus passages. It’s done with an endoscope. This is a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and a light. An ear, nose, and throat doctor (otolaryngologist) will often do this procedure in his or her office.
The sinuses are a group of spaces formed by the bones of your face. They connect with your nasal cavity. This is the air-filled space behind your nose.
During the procedure, the healthcare provider inserts the endoscope into your nose. He or she guides it through your nasal and sinus passages. Images of the area can be seen through the endoscope. This can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In some cases, small tools may be used to take tiny samples of tissue or do other tasks.

You might need a nasal endoscopy if your healthcare provider needs more information about problems such as:

• Nasal congestion
• Nasal blockage
• Nasal and sinus infection (rhino sinusitis)
• Nasal polyps
• Nasal tumors
• Nosebleeds
• Loss of ability to smell
• Cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF Rhinorrhoea)

The endoscopy can show specific details, such as the site of bleeding and swelling of nasal tissue. It can also be used to look at a growth that might be cancer. In some cases, a nasal endoscopy can be used as a treatment. For example, it may be done on a child to remove a foreign object from his or her nose.

What is Skull Base Surgery?

Skull base surgery is a highly specialized, minimally invasive surgical technique for evaluating, diagnosing and treating benign or cancerous growths located on the underside of the brain, the base of the skull and the upper vertebrae of the spinal column. It can also be advantageous in repairing congenital anomalies and malformations.
Skull base surgeons use special instruments inserted through the skull’s natural openings (e.g., nose, mouth and above the eyes) to operate rather than accessing the brain through a craniotomy (surgical opening of the skull). Prior to the development of skull base surgery it was necessary to remove relatively large portions of the skull and/or facial musculature in order to gain entry into these areas. The benefits of skull base surgery include less risk of infection and damage to cerebral structures and nerves, less risk of disfigurement and a shorter recovery time.

Voice Clinic & Laryngeal Surgeries

Rigid & fiber optic video laryngoscope are integral part of voice clinic and help to diagnose various Laryngeal pathologies which can be treated either medically or by Micro Laryngeal Surgery (MLS Scopy).

Some additional test sometimes used
• Video stroboscope: A camera is combined with a flashing light to provide a slow-motion view of your vocal cords as they move.
• Sound (acoustic) analysis: Using computer analysis, We can measure irregularities in the sound produced by the vocal cords.
• Laryngeal electromyography: Small needles are inserted through the skin to measure the electric currents in your voice box muscles.

Microscopic voice surgery, otherwise known as micro laryngeal surgery, is a minimally invasive procedure used to correct the following:
• Voice disorders
• Speaking or breathing difficulties
• Other problems affecting the larynx

The larynx is located in the front of the neck and helps us breathe, swallow, speak and controls the opening and closing of the windpipe. The larynx is also where the vocal cords are found.
If you suffer from persistent cough, hoarseness or various voice problems, diagnostic testing can conclude if Microscopic voice surgery is right for you. This procedure is commonly used to treat the following conditions:
• Lesions
• Cysts
• Benign tumors
• Granulomas

Microscopic voice surgery removes these abnormal growths on the larynx. These are typically noncancerous growths that may develop in the area of the vocal folds as a result of persistent irritation or trauma. They can have a wide variety of causes, including vocal overuse, coughing, acid reflux and more.

Allergy Diagnosis & Treatment

Allergies are among the most common chronic conditions worldwide. Allergy symptoms range from making you miserable to putting you at risk for life-threatening reactions.

According to the leading experts in allergy, an allergic reaction begins in the immune system. Our immune system protects us from invading organisms that can cause illness. If you have an allergy, your immune system mistakes an otherwise harmless substance as an invader. If you have an allergy, your immune system mistakes an otherwise harmless substance as an invader. This substance is called an allergen. The immune system overreacts to the allergen by producing Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. These antibodies travel to cells that release histamine and other chemicals, causing an allergic reaction.

Allergy Symptoms
An allergic reaction typically triggers symptoms in the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, lining of the stomach or on the skin. For some people, allergies can also trigger symptoms of asthma. In the most serious cases, a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis) can occur.
A number of different allergens are responsible for allergic reactions. The most common include:

• Pollen
• Dust
• Food
• Insect stings
• Animal dander
• Mold
• Medications/Drugs
• Latex

Treatment
For allergy sufferers, the best treatment is to avoid the offending allergens altogether. This may be possible if the allergen is a specific food, like peanuts, which can be cut out of the diet, but not when the very air we breathe is loaded with allergens, such as ragweed pollen.

Antihistamines
These medications counter the effects of histamine, the substance that makes eyes water and noses itch and causes sneezing during allergic reactions. Sleepiness was a problem with the oldest antihistamines, but the newest drugs do not cause such a problem.

Nasal steroids
These anti-inflammatory sprays help decrease inflammation, swelling, and mucus production. They work well alone and, for some people, in combination with antihistamines; in recommended doses, they are relatively free of side effects.

Cromolyn sodium
A nasal spray, cromolyn sodium can help stop hay fever, perhaps by blocking release of histamine and other symptom-producing chemicals. It has few side effects.

Decongestants
Available in capsule and spray form, decongestants may reduce swelling and sinus discomfort. Intended for short-term use, they are usually used in combination with antihistamines. Long-term usage of spray decongestants can actually make symptoms worse, while decongestant pills do not have this problem.

Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy (allergy shots) might provide relief for patients who don't find relief with antihistamines or nasal steroids. Allergy shots alter the body's immune response to allergens, thereby helping to prevent allergic reactions. They are the only form of treatment that can induce long-lasting protection for several years after therapy is stopped. Current immunotherapy treatments are limited because of potential allergic reactions; rarely, these can be severe.

Rhinoplasty & Cosmetic Surgery

Rhinoplasty
A nose job (technically called a Rhinoplasty) is surgery on the nose to change its shape or improve its function. It can be done for medical reasons -- such as to correct breathing problems related to the nose or correct disfigurement resulting from trauma or birth defects.
It can also be done for cosmetic reasons, which will change the nose's shape and appearance.

Risks
As with any major surgery, rhinoplasty carries risks such as bleeding, infection and an adverse reaction to the anesthesia. Other possible risks specific to rhinoplasty include:
• Recurring nosebleeds
• Difficulty breathing through your nose
• Permanent numbness in and around your nose
• Possibility of an uneven-looking nose
• Pain, discoloration or swelling that may persist
• Scarring
• Hole in the septum (septum perforation)

Cosmetic Surgery
Cosmetic surgery, also referred to as aesthetic surgery, is a surgical procedure which endeavors to improve the physical aspects of one's appearance to become more aesthetically pleasing. The continuously growing field of cosmetic surgery is closely linked with plastic surgery, the difference being, cosmetic surgery is an elective surgery with the sole purpose to enhance the physical features of one's appearance. Plastic surgery is performed in order to rectify defects to reinstate normality to function and appearance. Cosmetic surgical procedures are generally performed on healthy functioning body parts, with the procedure being optional not medically necessary. The inevitable aim of cosmetic surgery is to enhance one's image, encompassing reducing the signs of aging and/or correction of a believed deviation on one's body in turn it is surrounded by controversy

Vertigo treatment & rehabilitation

Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizziness. It is not, as many people maintain, a fear of heights. It is often associated with looking down from a great height but can refer to any temporary or ongoing spells of dizziness caused by problems in the inner ear or brain. Many conditions can cause vertigo.
Symptoms
A person with vertigo will have a sense that their head, or their surrounding environment, is moving or spinning.
Vertigo can be a symptom of other conditions, and it can also have its own set of related symptoms. These include:
• Balance problems and lightheadedness
• A sense of motion sickness
• Nausea and vomiting
• Tinnitus
• A feeling of fullness in the ear
• Headache

Vertigo is not just a general feeling of faintness. It is a rotational dizziness.

Treatment for Vertigo
Treatment for vertigo depends on what's causing it. In many cases, vertigo goes away without any treatment. This is because your brain is able to adapt, at least in part, to the inner ear changes, relying on other mechanisms to maintain balance.
For some, treatment is needed and may include:

Vestibular rehabilitation
This is a type of physical therapy aimed at helping strengthen the vestibular system. The function of the vestibular system is to send signals to the brain about head and body movements relative to gravity.
Vestibular rehab may be recommended if you have recurrent bouts of vertigo. It helps train your other senses to compensate for vertigo.

Canalith repositioning maneuvers
There are the series of specific head and body movements for BPPV. The movements are done to move the calcium deposits out of the canal into an inner ear chamber so they can be absorbed by the body. You will likely have vertigo symptoms during the procedure as the canaliths move.
A doctor or physical therapist can guide you through the movements. The movements are safe and often effective.

Medicine
In some cases, medication may be given to relieve symptoms such as nausea or motion sickness associated with vertigo. If vertigo is caused by an infection or inflammation, antibiotics or steroids may reduce swelling and cure infection. For Meniere's disease, diuretics (water pills) may be prescribed to reduce pressure from fluid buildup.

Surgery
In a few cases, surgery may be needed for vertigo.
If vertigo is caused by a more serious underlying problem, such as a tumor or injury to the brain or neck, treatment for those problems may help to alleviate the vertigo.

Cancer Clinic

Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.

Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. As cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors.

Detection, Diagnosis & holistic treatment & of cancer

How Is Cancer Diagnosed?

The earlier cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of its being cured. Some types of cancer -- such as those of the skin, breast, mouth, testicles, prostate, and rectum -- may be detected by routine self-exam or other screening measures before the symptoms become serious. Most cases of cancer are detected and diagnosed after a tumor can be felt or when other symptoms develop. In a few cases, cancer is diagnosed incidentally as a result of evaluating or treating other medical conditions.

Cancer diagnosis begins with a thorough physical exam and a complete medical history. Laboratory studies of blood, urine, and stool can detect abnormalities that may indicate cancer. When a tumor is suspected, imaging tests such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and fiber-optic endoscopy examinations help doctors determine the cancer's location and size. To confirm the diagnosis of most cancers , a biopsy needs to be performed in which a tissue sample is removed from the suspected tumor and studied under a microscope to check for cancer cells.

If the diagnosis is positive (cancer is present), other tests are performed to provide specific information about the cancer. This essential follow-up phase of diagnosis is called staging. The most important thing doctors need to know is whether cancer has spread from one area of the body to another. If the initial diagnosis is negative for cancer and symptoms persist, further tests may be needed. If the biopsy is positive for cancer, be sure to seek a confirming opinion by a doctor who specializes in cancer treatment before any treatment is started.

What Are the Treatments for Cancer?

Depending on the type and stage of cancer, treatments to eradicate the tumor or slow its growth may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or immunotherapy.

Day care chemotherapy

Day care chemotherapy is a relatively new concept in India.

Chemotherapy is one of the most important treatments in all types of cancer. It targets cancer cells with drugs. There are many different types of “chemo” and it different people respond to it in different ways. Chemotherapy destroys cancer cells, but also stops or slows their growth and prevents them from spreading to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy can be a stand-alone treatment or given with other forms of intervention like radiation and surgery. The procedure can also make other treatments more effective.

What is Surgical, Medical & Radiation Oncology

What is Surgical Oncology ?
Historically, surgery was the only treatment for cancer with pioneering surgeons pushing the boundaries of knowledge down through the millenia . Only in the last century have non surgical means provided an adjunct or more rarely, an alternative to surgery . Despite the advances in medical and radiation oncology, surgery is still the only modality with the potential to cure most solid cancers. Surgeons have a pivotal role in cancer treatments and research, leading the diagnostic and treatment pathways for most cancers from counselling patients about their diagnosis through to surgery and aftercare. They have also led many of the great advances in cancer research.

However, cancer care has evolved very rapidly over the last few decades and therefore a new type of surgeon is needed to keep pace with these changes. No longer is surgery alone the only treatment for most solid malignancies but a combination of surgery and multi-modal therapies (with highly focussed radiotherapy, targeted molecular therapies and poly-chemotherapy) becoming the modern standard of care.

As a result, the surgeon, who 40 years ago would often be the only specialist to have contact with most cancer patients, can no longer work in isolation but must lead a multi-disciplinary team. They must be more than just a technician and must understand the biology and natural history of the disease as well as the contributions made by other disciplines to the cancer patients’ treatment. It is at this point that the surgeon becomes a surgical oncologist.
Examples include:
Collaboration with radiation and medical oncologists on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy to enhance or permit surgery possible and on the indications for adjuvant therapy after surgery.
Collaboration with radiologists to plan surgery or optimise resection margins.
Collaboration with pathologists to ensure appropriate primary and adjuvant therapies, (tumour immunophenotyping and mutational analysis to optimise treatment) and to quality assure surgery (e.g. assessment of circumferential resection margins following TME)
Collaboration with geneticists in hereditary cancers to optimise treatment, prevention or screening strategies (BRCA1, FAP).

Medical Oncology
Medical Oncology (MO) communicates the results of clinical and experimental research in oncology and hematology, particularly with experimental therapeutics with the field of immunotherapy and chemotherapy. It also provides state-of-the-art reviews on clinical and experimental therapies in oncology and hematology. Topics covered include immunobiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of malignant tumors.

Radiation Oncologist
A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer. Radiation oncology is one of the three primary specialties, the other two being surgical and medical oncology, involved in the treatment of cancer. Radiation can be given as a curative modality, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. It may also be used palliatively, to relieve symptoms in patients with incurable cancers. A radiation oncologist may also use radiation to treat some benign diseases, including benign tumors. In some countries (not the United States), radiotherapy and chemotherapy are controlled by a single oncologist who is a "clinical oncologist". Radiation oncologists work closely with other physicians such as surgical oncologists, interventional radiologists, internal medicine subspecialists, and medical oncologists, as well as medical physicists and technicians as part of the multi-disciplinary cancer team.
Radiotherapy training in India encompasses treatment of solid tumors in terms of Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and palliative care in most states. Postgraduate MD degree is awarded after 3 years of post-MBBS in-service comprehensive training and a final university level exam. MD Radiation oncology practitioners are the most proficient oncologists of India delivering radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The first Radiotherapy department of Asia was set up in 1910 at Calcutta Medical College in the state of West Bengal and is still a leading oncology training centre of India.

Prevention of Cancer

1. Don't use tobacco
Using any type of tobacco puts you on a collision course with cancer. Smoking has been linked to various types of cancer — including cancer of the lung, mouth, throat, larynx, pancreas, bladder, cervix and kidney. Chewing tobacco has been linked to cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas. Even if you don't use tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke might increase your risk of lung cancer.
Avoiding tobacco — or deciding to stop using it — is one of the most important health decisions you can make. It's also an important part of cancer prevention. If you need help quitting tobacco, ask your doctor about stop-smoking products and other strategies for quitting.

2. Eat a healthy diet
Although making healthy selections at the grocery store and at mealtime can't guarantee cancer prevention, it might help reduce your risk. Consider these guidelines:
Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Base your diet on fruits, vegetables and other foods from plant sources — such as whole grains and beans. Avoid obesity. Eat lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-calorie foods, including refined sugars and fat from animal sources.
If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. The risk of various types of cancer — including cancer of the breast, colon, lung, kidney and liver — increases with the amount of alcohol you drink and the length of time you've been drinking regularly.
Limit processed meats. A report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, concluded that eating large amounts of processed meat can slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
In addition, women who eat a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and mixed nuts might have a reduced risk of breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet focuses on mostly on plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts. People who follow the Mediterranean diet choose healthy fats, like olive oil, over butter and fish instead of red meat.

3. Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active
Maintaining a healthy weight might lower the risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and kidney.
Physical activity counts, too. In addition to helping you control your weight, physical activity on its own might lower the risk of breast cancer and colon cancer.
Adults who participate in any amount of physical activity gain some health benefits. But for substantial health benefits, strive to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic physical activity. You can also do a combination of moderate and vigorous activity. As a general goal, include at least 30 minutes of physical activity in your daily routine — and if you can do more, even better.

4. Protect yourself from the sun
Skin cancer is one of the most common kinds of cancer — and one of the most preventable.
Try these tips:
Avoid midday sun. Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun's rays are strongest.
Stay in the shade. When you're outdoors, stay in the shade as much as possible. Sunglasses and a broad-brimmed hat help, too. Cover exposed areas. Wear tightly woven, loose fitting clothing that covers as much of your skin as possible. Opt for bright or dark colors, which reflect more ultraviolet radiation than pastels or bleached cotton. Don't skimp on sunscreen. Use generous amounts of sunscreen when you're outdoors, and reapply often. Avoid tanning beds and sunlamps. These are just as damaging as natural sunlight.

5. Get immunized
Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections. Talk to your doctor about immunization against:
i] Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for certain high-risk adults — such as adults who are sexually active but not in a mutually monogamous relationship, people with sexually transmitted infections, intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, and health care or public safety workers who might be exposed to infected blood or body fluids.
ii] Human papillomavirus (HPV)
HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to cervical and other genital cancers as well as squalors cell cancers of the head and neck. The HPV vaccine is recommended for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. It is also available to both men and women age 26 or younger who didn't have the vaccine as adolescents.

6. Avoid risky behaviors
Another effective cancer prevention tactic is to avoid risky behaviors that can lead to infections that, in turn, might increase the risk of cancer. For example:
i] Practice safe sex
Limit your number of sexual partners, and use a condom when you have sex. The more sexual partners you have in your lifetime, the more likely you are to contract a sexually transmitted infection — such as HIV or HPV. People who have HIV or AIDS have a higher risk of cancer of the anus, liver and lung. HPV is most often associated with cervical cancer, but it might also increase the risk of cancer of the anus, penis, throat, vulva and vagina.
ii] Don't share needles
Sharing needles with an infected drug user can lead to HIV, as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C — which can increase the risk of liver cancer. If you're concerned about drug abuse or addiction, seek professional help.

7. Get regular medical care
Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers — such as cancer of the skin, colon, cervix and breast — can increase your chances of discovering cancer early, when treatment is most likely to be successful. Ask your doctor about the best cancer screening schedule for you.
Take cancer prevention into your own hands, starting today. The rewards will last a lifetime.